Call for papers: 1st International Symposium on Translation and Knowledge Transfer

Our alumna Luisa Rodríguez Muñoz (Universidad de
Córdoba) has kindly asked us to spread the below call for papers:

“CALL FOR PAPERSDeadline for submission of abstracts for individual presentations is 15 June (1st Call) or 30 June (2nd Call)

1st International Symposium on Translation and Knowledge Transfer: New trends in the theory and practice of translation and interpreting (TRAK)

We are happy to announce that the 1st International Symposium on Translation and Knowledge Transfer: New trends in the theory and practice of translation and interpreting (TRAK) will be held in Cordoba on 17-18 October 2019.

The main theme of TRAK2019 is knowledge transfer through translation, and for this purpose, the symposium explores the fundamental role of translation and interpreting as channels for the dissemination of knowledge, bringing languages and cultures closer in a diversified world.

[Read further details here]

The first Call for Papers is available below. Please note the deadlines and submission details.


Translation Theory

  • Research methods: Sociology applied to translation and interpreting.
  • Interdisciplinarity in translation research.
  • Translation perspectives: Turns, shifts and new fields of inquiry.
  • Interculturality and transculturality in translation and interpreting.
  • Translation and gender studies.
  • The impact of translation and language policies on multilingualism.

Translation Practice

  • New careers in translation and interpreting: Postediting, transcreation and technology management.
  • The future of translation and interpreting: Translation technologies and automatic translation.
  • Developments in translation project management.
  • Multimodal translation: New forms of intersemiotic transfer.
  • Shifting trends in the translation industry: The consumers’ choice and its impact on translated products.


The deadline for submission of abstracts will be 15 June (early bird fee) or 30 June (last call fee).

Abstracts of 300 words in English or French and adapted to our Abstract sheet should be sent to Carmen Expósito Castro ( and Mar Ogea Pozo ( We will update with payment details soon.

Speakers – Early bird fee (before 15 June) 100 €
Speakers – Last call (16-30 June) 125 €
Participants – Early bird fee (before 15 June) 50€
Participants – Last call (16-30 June) 75€


Juan José Martínez Sierra (Universitat de València)

Sylvie Monjean-Decaudin (Sorbonne Université)

Christiane Nord (University of the Free State, Bloemfontein)

Boris Vázquez-Calvo (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela)


To see more information on the symposium, please visit our websites:

PhD seminar on “Translation and Cultural Transfer” (Ghent University and KU Leuven)

Please find below an advertisement for a PhD seminar on “Translation and Cultural Transfer” which is being organised by our colleagues Anneleen Spiessens and Beatrijs Vanacker, respectively affiliated with Ghent University and KU Leuven, in collaboration with CLIV (Centrum voor Literatuur in Vertaling) and CERES (Centre for Reception Studies).

Diana-Roig-Sanz-1-333x444 Petra-Broomans-333x444“From 11 to 13 June 2019, a PhD course on “Translation and Cultural Transfer” will take place at Ghent University and KU Leuven/Campus Brussels. Keynote lecturers Diana Roig Sanz (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya) and Petra Broomans (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen) will present theoretical models and methods for analyzing intra- and extra-textual aspects of cultural transfer processes in peripheral multilingual contexts.

The course is conceived as an interactive seminar. It is a combination of ex-cathedra lectures, hands-on methodological workshops, tutorials/short presentations by doctoral researchers, discussions, and preliminary reading.

PhD students can apply by 20 May 2019 by sending a 500-word abstract of their presentation to or Call, full (preliminary) program and evaluation criteria are available here.

Post-docs and other university staff are welcome to attend lectures and discussions without actively participating. For practical reasons, we kindly ask you to register by e-mailing Anneleen or Beatrijs by 20 May.”

CETRA Winter Lecture: From Romantic Nationalism to Today’s Europe

What does Romantic nationalism and today’s Europe have in common? What role does the linguistic diversity play in this? Find the answer in the upcoming CETRA Winter Lecture. Till Dembeck, from the University of Luxembourg, is giving a talk on Wednesday 3 April 2019, 6:30-8 pm, in Leuven.

This is the abstract:

Romantic Nationalism, Linguistic Diversity, and Today’s Europe

The foundations of today’s European language regimes have in large parts been laid during Romanticism. More particularly, it was Romanticist thinkers who established what is today called the ‘monolingual paradigm’, i.e., the notion that it is natural for a human individual to master one language as his or her mother tongue. The monolingual paradigm has subsequently been put into use by national movements all over the world– with very far-reaching sociocultural effects. Combined with the idea of universal translatability, it is also at the heart of today’s notion of Europe, at least as it is constituted in the European Union and other international institutions.

This lecture is about an alternative politico-cultural strand of Romanticism that runs against the mainstream of monolingual, national thinking and rather aims at fostering forms of linguistic and cultural diversity that cannot be reduced to the simple multiplication of countable language units, i.e., to the notion that multilingualism is nothing but the multiplication of ‘monolingualisms’. This alternative form of Romanticism, often neglected by scholarship, emphasises untranslatability and views the multiplicity and fuzziness of the ways in which we use language, as a free-floating resource that can be drawn on to make sense of the modern world. Arguing from a distinctly philological point of view, the lecture proposes a conceptual framework that differs from linguistic descriptions of multilingualism, then develops its main thesis in readings of selected literary works by authors from European Romanticism such as Herder, Goethe, Lord Byron and Hugo, and eventually asks how Schleiermacher’s Romantic translation theory deals with the tensions built into the Romantic concept of linguistic diversity.

About the speaker

Till Dembeck is Professor for German Literature and Media Didactics at the Université du Luxembourg. His current work is devoted to literary multilingualism, 19th century lyric poetry and the history of linguistics. One of his recent publications is Literatur und Mehrsprachigkeit. Ein Handbuch (Tübingen: Narr 2017, ed. with Rolf Parr).


Faculty of Arts, Campus Leuven, Erasmusplein 2, 3000 Leuven, MSI1 00.28; entrance is free, but please register by sending an email to


Call for papers: “Insights into audiovisual and comic translation. Changing perspectives on films, comics and videogames”

Our alumna Luisa Rodríguez Muñoz has kindly asked us to spread the below call for papers from Universidad de Córdoba:

Translation and Interpreting Series, volume III: Insights into audiovisual and comic translation. Changing perspectives on films, comics and videogames

“After the release of the first volume of the Translation and Interpreting Series in 2016 under the title Languages and Texts: Translation and Interpreting in Cross Cultural Environments, and the second volume expected to be published by the end of 2018, we are issuing a Call for Papers for our third volume, which will be dedicated to the topics of audiovisual translation (including all types of AVT), translation of comics, and translation and localisation of videogames. Please submit the full paper by 30th April 2019.”

For more information, please download the PDF file Translation and interpreting series III_UCO_EN.


Provisional programme of the 2019 CETRA Research Summer School in Translation Studies

In close collaboration with our teaching staff members, we’re now fine-tuning the programme of our next Research Summer School in Translation Studies (see our call for participants).

This is how the provisional version looks like:

Monday 19 August

Tuesday 20 August

Wednesday 21 August

  • 9.30 am: Seminar by Franz Pöchhacker: Methodological approaches in translation and interpreting research. Chair: Demi Krystallidou
  • 11 am: Coffee break
  • 11.30 am-1 pm: Tutorials and library work
  • 1-2 pm: Lunch
  • 2-3.30 pm: Seminar by Sara Ramos Pinto: Back to basics. Rethinking TS concepts through an AVT lense. Chair: Isabelle Delaere
  • 4-6 pm: Tutorials and library work

Thursday 22 August

  • 9 am-11.30 am: Tutorials and library work
  • 11.30 am: Lecture by CETRA Chair Professor, Jemina Napier: Examining the multimodal research trend in dialogue interpreting research. [click on the link to read the abstract] Chair: Pieter Boulogne
  • 1-2 pm: Lunch
  • 2-5 pm: Parallel workshops according to topic or methodology, by Pieter Boulogne, Leo Tak-hung Chan, Isabelle Delaere, Lieven D’hulst, Daniel Gile, Haidee Kruger, Demi Krystallidou, Franz Pöchhacker, Sara Ramos Pinto, Heidi Salaets and Luc van Doorslaer – exact topics to be determined later.
  • 7 pm: Dinner in Antwerp restaurant

Friday 23 August

  • 9.30-11.30 am: Library work and tutorials
  • 11.30 am: Seminar by Leo Tak-hung Chan: Free Translation, Adaptation and Imitation. Chair: Pieter Boulogne
  • 1-2 pm: Lunch
  • 2-3.30 pm: Seminar by Haidee Kruger: Converging what and how to find out why: Methods in empirical translation studies. Chair: Elke Brems
  • 3.30-5.30 pm Library work and tutorials

Monday 26 August

  • 9.30 am: Seminar by Christina Schäffner: Institutional translation: practices, norms, and agency. Chair: Reine Meylaerts
  • 11 am: Coffee break
  • 11.30 am: Lecture by CETRA Chair Professor, Jemina Napier: Participatory research methods in interpreting studies. [click on the link to read the abstract] Chair: Dirk Delabastita
  • 1-2 pm: Lunch
  • 2-4 pm: Student presentations. Chair: Pieter Boulogne
    • 4-6 pm: Library work and tutorials

Tuesday 27 August

  • 9.30 am: Seminar by Aline Remael: Translation and media accessibility. [click on the link to read the abstract] Chair: Pieter Boulogne
  • 11 am: Coffee break
  • 11.30 am – 1 pm: Student presentations. Chair: Luc van Doorslaer
  • 1-2 pm: Lunch
  • 2-3.30 pm: Student presentations. Chair: Heidi Salaets
  • 4-6 pm: Library work and tutorials

Wednesday 28 August

Thursday 29 August

  • 9.30 am: Seminar by Dilek Dizdar: Translatorial action and functionalism in the 21st century. Chair: Elke Brems
  • 11 am: Coffee break
  • 11.30 am – 1 pm: Student presentations. Chair: Demi Krystallidou
  • 1-2 pm: Lunch
  • 2-3.30 pm: Student presentations. Chair: Dirk Delabastita
  • 4-6 pm: Library work and tutorials
  • 7 pm: Dinner in Antwerp restaurant

Friday 30 August

  • 9-10:30: Library work and tutorials
  • 10.30-12: Seminar by Dirk Delabastita: Publishing in Translation Studies. Chair: to be determined
  • 12-1 pm: Lunch
  • 1-4 pm: Student presentations. Chair: Pieter Boulogne
  • 4 pm: Closing drink

We look forward to receiving your application!

A testimonial about the CETRA Summer School by Lars Liljegren (Linköping University)

Lars Liljegren, Senior Lecturer, Linköping University, Sweden

Lars is a CETRA alumnus of 2014. He defended his PhD thesis entitled “The Taming of a Viking: August Strindberg, Translation and Post-Victorian Censorship” in November 2018, at Linköping University.

Bild på mig.jp2g“Having worked at Linköping University as a Junior Lecturer of English since 1999, I was fortunate to be able to start my PhD studies for real, as part of my work description, in 2011. Studying and teaching at the same time is demanding, but it means that one can pursue one’s studies for a longer period of time, which is an advantage in itself.
I attended the CETRA summer school in 2014, and was fortunate to make many new friends among my fellow PhD students. For me, the CETRA summer school was a complete game changer. After the first week with CETRA, having spent four years studying the field from the outside trying to grasp concepts and theories, I already felt I was now part of the inside, part of the discipline. This new, and slightly surprising, sensation made all the difference. The opportunity to be able to listen to some of the most prominent researchers in the field while also being able to meet several of them in person to discuss one’s project was truly helpful. The CETRA staff were so engaged and so eager to help that one felt at home right away. Although they all deserve a lot of credit, I would personally like to mention the help I got from Peter Flynn, Dirk Delabastita, Reine Meylaerts, Andrew Chesterman and Sara Ramos Pinto. I think “wow!” sums it up rather well, for the lack of better words.

At my mock dissertation, about a year before the completion of my thesis, Reine Meylaerts came to Linköping as my opponent, and in November 2018, Dirk Delabastita was the opponent when the thesis was to be officially defended. The feedback I got from both and the discussions we had were very useful, and their approach would serve as a template for how to professionally conduct a constructive opposition where both mind and heart are combined. I am forever in their debt for the time and effort they made on my behalf.

I believe that what is partly the strength of CETRA is that PhD students are always made to feel welcome in the discipline. It is obvious that the CETRA staff enjoy helping and shaping their future colleagues, because that is how students are regarded there: not as students, but as future colleagues. Thus, I would recommend anyone thinking of applying to the CETRA summer school to do so without hesitation. You will be in the best of hands.”

Lars submitted his testimonial in December 2018. Here, you can read more testimonials by alumni of our Research Summer School in Translation Studies.  

CETRA video lectures by Michael Cronin (2004): “Dante’s Towering Inferno: The Translational Politics of Immigration”, “Double Take: Figuring the Other and the Growing Pains of Empire” and “Microcosmopolitan Perspectives on Translation”

On the occasion of its 30th anniversary in the summer of 2018, the KU Leuven Centre for Translation Studies has been, so to speak, browsing its family albums. One of its particularly interesting chapters consists of the recorded lectures by the Chair Professors of our Research Summer School in Translation Studies. We admit that the technological quality of some of these videos is not as good as we would like it to be, but we believe this is generously compensated by the quality of the lectures in question. We are therefore happy to be able to share our collection of recorded CETRA lectures on this blog. We will do this gradually, to prevent indigestion, and in chronological order. An overview of the already published video lectures can be found on this blog page

Today, we would like to invite you to revisit the lectures “Dante’s Towering Inferno: The Translational Politics of Immigration”, “Double Take: Figuring the Other and the Growing Pains of Empire” and “Microcosmopolitan Perspectives on Translation”, held by Michael Cronin, CETRA Chair Professor of 2004, in September 2004.

2019 CETRA Summer School: Call for Participants



19-30 AUGUST 2019

Jemina-NapierThe CETRA Board has appointed JEMINA NAPIER (HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY, EDINBURGH, UK) as CETRA Chair Professor 2019.

Prof. Napier’s bio note and publication list can be found here.

More information about the application procedure and the scholarships can be found below.

In 1989 José Lambert created a special research program in Translation Studies at the University of Leuven in order to promote research training in the study of translational phenomena and to stimulate high-level research into the cultural functions of translation. Since then, this unique program has attracted talented PhD students, postdocs and young scholars who spend two weeks of research under the supervision of a team of prominent scholars as well as of the supervision of the Chair Professor, an annually appointed expert in the field of Translation Studies. From 1989 on, the program has hosted participants from Austria to Australia, from Brazil to Burundi, and from China to the Czech Republic. As an illustration of the multi-campus model of CETRA, the 2019 edition of the Summer School will be organized at the Antwerp campus of the KU Leuven, in the city center of Antwerp.

The list of CETRA professors may serve as an illustration of the program’s openness to the different currents in the international world of Translation Studies. Testimonials of our Summer School participants can be found on this blog page.

Basic activities and components of the Research Summer School:

  • Public Lectures by the CETRA Professor on key topics. A preliminary reading list will be provided and all topics are to be further developed in discussions
  • Theoretical-methodological seminars given by the CETRA staff. Basic reading materials will be made available in advance
  • Tutorials: individual discussions on participants’ research with the CETRA Professor and the CETRA staff
  • Workshops in small groups according to topic or methodology
  • Students’ papers: presentation of participants’ individual research projects followed by open discussion
  • Publication: each participant is invited to submit an article based on the presentation, to be refereed and published in an edited volume

Here you can find our Translation Studies basic bibliography.

The provisional programme has been made available on this blog page.

Summer School staff

Pieter Boulogne, Elke Brems, Dirk Delabastita, Isabelle Delaere, Lieven D’hulst, Dilek Dizdar, Daniel Gile, Demi Krystallidou, Haidee Kruger, Reine Meylaerts, Franz Pöchhacker, Sara Ramos Pinto, Aline Remael, Heidi Salaets, Christina Schäffner, Leo Tak-hung Chan and Luc van Doorslaer

We sincerely thank our partners for their contributions to the 2019 Summer School.


Application in two rounds

Participation in the CETRA Research Summer School is limited to a maximum of 25 students (KU Leuven PhD students not included). The Board welcomes PhD students and postdoctoral researchers, but also scholars and professionals who are actively interested or involved in research in Translation and Interpreting Studies are invited to apply.

Since in some cases participants may need extra time for visa application and application for funding, the application procedure consists of two different rounds with separate deadlines.

First Round (for early birds)
Application deadline: 4 March 2019
Notification of acceptance: 15 March 2019

Second Round
Application deadline: 2 May 2019
Notification of acceptance: 10 May 2019

Students applying for the Summer School are required to send a motivation letter and a recent curriculum vitae to Steven Dewallens. In addition, they have to fill in the relevant online application form:

Based on this information, the CETRA Board will evaluate all applications, both for the first and the second round.

Accepted students will be required to send a copy of their ID/Visa, a photograph and a short bio note (200-300 words) to Steven Dewallens.


The total enrolment fee is € 1250. This sum includes the following: participation in the workshops, seminars and lectures; individual tutorials with the staff members whose expertise is relevant to your topic; warm lunches offered on campus during week days; two shared dinners in a restaurant; registration as KU Leuven visiting scholar, with access to library and computer facilities and insurance. The fee does not cover travel expenses and housing.

CETRA has applied for funding from the Flemish government’s YouReCa scheme (Young Researchers’ Careers). Thanks to this subsidy, PhD students and postdoctoral researchers affiliated with Flemish universities are be able to participate at the reduced rate of € 600.

The payment of the fee is due upon written notification that the application has been accepted.


CETRA is sponsoring 4 scholarships of € 400 to registered participants of the CETRA 2019 Research Summer School. Applicants must fulfil the following requirements to be eligible for the scholarship:

  • having specific financial needs;
  • having been accepted by the CETRA Board (see above);
  • having paid the advance of € 400;
  • submitting a motivation letter to the administrative coordinator of CETRA, Steven Dewallens (deadline: 17 May 2019). When writing this letter, applicants should keep in mind that the CETRA board will base its decision not only on their personal circumstances but also on the overall merit and potential impact of their research project. Please note that participants affiliated with Flemish universities cannot apply for these scholarships.

Payment policy

An advance of € 400 has to be paid by 17 May 2019. No exceptions are allowed. If the advance is not paid by 17 May, your place will be offered to candidates on the standby list. The remaining € 850 has to be paid before 20 June 2019.

Payment can be made:

1. by bank transfer to

KBC Bank
Brusselsesteenweg 100
3000 Leuven

For international payments please make use of the international IBAN code for fast payment: BE09 4320 0000 1157


KU Leuven
Krakenstraat 3
3000 Leuven

Please mention the following structured communication 400/0017/33309 first name + last name

Note: Please send a copy of the bank transfer to Steven Dewallens.

2. by credit card

Please follow this link (click in the right corner for the English version; please fill in your name below ‘optional information’).

Cancellation of participation

Cancellations must be sent via e-mail to Steven Dewallens.

  • For cancellations made before 5 July, an administrative cost of € 200 will be withheld from the refund.
  • 75% cancellation fee charged for cancellations made between 5 July and 12 August.
  • All refunds will be made after the Summer School.
  • For cancellations after 12 August no refunds can be made.

Accommodation and travel info

Venue of the Summer School: KU Leuven campus Antwerp, Sint-Andriesstraat 2, 2000 Antwerp. For travel info please click here.

The Antwerp campus of KU Leuven is located in the old town centre of Antwerp, near the “Nationalestraat” and the “Groenplaats” and close to the “Grote Markt”. The main railway station “Antwerpen Centraal” is just a 20 to 25 minutes’ walk away.

For more information about the city of Antwerp, please visit the following website:

For student accommodation, we collaborate with the Institute for Tropical Medicine, which has ten single rooms available for us in the Karibu building (less than half a mile from the campus): see the  brochure. The prices are listed under ‘others’ (week: € 195 to € 205; plus € 150  administration cost). For information and booking: see contact details of Patricia Braat in the brochure. Please mention ‘CETRA Summer School KU Leuven’.

There are two nice studios available at the Thomas More campus, both with two single beds and a kitchen. They can be booked for single or for double use. Price per day: 30 € per night. Booked on first-come first-served basis. For information and booking: contact Steven Dewallens.

Besides student accommodation, there are several hotels and B&B’s available in the centre of Anwerp, including:
Hilton (
Elzenveld (
Theater Hotel (
Most hotels and B&B’s can be booked online on websites such as or the website of the Antwerp Hotel Association:

For those who prefer budget accommodation, there is also a youth hostel very close to the campus (less than 5 minutes’ walk): Pulcinella, Bogaardeplein 1:

Accommodation is not organized through CETRA, but by the participants themselves.


Feel free to address any questions about the programme to Pieter Boulogne, the director of CETRA. For administrative questions please contact Steven Dewallens, the administrative coordinator of CETRA.



“Olha in CETRA-land”: a testimonial by one of our Summer School alumni

We’ve just received another testimonial by one of our alumni. It was entitled “Olha in CETRA-land”:

Lehka-Paul_Olha - CopyOlha Lehka-Paul, PhD, Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland

Olha is a CETRA alumna of 2016. She defended her PhD thesis “The role of the translator’s personality in the process of self-revision”, under the supervision of  Professor Bogusława Whyatt, with distinction in October 2018 at the Faculty of English of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland.

“Thursday, August 25th, 2016: “I had the time of my life. Really. It was fascinating. Fantastic. Unforgettable. Andrew Chesterman was reading his (and not only his) limericks and clerihews (yes, “clerihews” that later became modified and known as “andrihews”), which were met with applause and appreciation from the public. I was sitting right opposite the historical figure in TS, one of its founding fathers, Jose Lambert. We were drinking wine and he was telling us stories about the 70s and 80s when they were struggling for CETRA and TS to develop. About James Holmes and his vision of TS. About Gideon Toury and his strong will. About tennis and the CERA SA Bank. If it hadn’t been for all of this, we wouldn’t have CETRA (and perhaps even TS – who knows?). This is amazing. Alice in Wonderland (read: “CETRAland”). This is how I feel now. Just can’t believe that all the people from the textbooks are now alive in front of me, speaking to me, having wine and chatting. Incredible. Lewis Caroll would be proud. (…)” These are only a few lines from my 35-page long CETRA diary from 2016 Research Summer School. The diary filled with my lecture notes, reflections, ideas, reactions, tips from CETRA professors, and lots of precious memories. That summer was indeed special. Special in terms of both my personal and academic growth. Never before had I felt so immersed in research, so inspired to continue my PhD journey, and so happy to be surrounded by all those amazingly like-minded people from different countries and different research sub-fields.

The School made me realise a few important things. First, the understanding of my own PhD project grew with each tutorial – having to explain and discuss my project with the CETRA staff involved in-depth analysis of what I actually wanted to do, the steps I planned to take, and the outcomes that I sought to achieve. Second, I learnt how important it is to share knowledge and ideas – especially with people who know very little or nothing about our areas of expertise. They can sometimes notice and offer much more than we can expect from them. Third, I realised that being an expert does not necessarily mean knowing everything. Perhaps, it means quite the opposite – being aware of the gaps in our knowledge and willing to fill them in, being eager to learn from mistakes and take charge of any potential outcomes, and being ready to share our experience (both positive and negative) with others. And last but not least, CETRA unites people – where else would one be able to make friends with people from different countries and continents, with both students and professors? CETRA community is composed of so many different people – in terms of age, status, background, area of expertise – that this difference brings them together. In a nutshell, I strongly recommend that everyone who genuinely cares about research in Translation Studies, regardless of how far they have gone with their PhD project, should visit the CETRAland! The advantage is such that (unlike it was in the famous story) as long as you visit it, you will stay in it forever.”

Olha submitted her testimonial in December 2018. You can read more testimonials by our research summer school alumni on this blog page

CETRA video lectures by Ian Mason” (2003): An integrated framework for translated events”, “Transitivity and Institutional Norms of Translating” and “Dialogue Interpreting and Relevance”

On the occasion of its 30th anniversary in the summer of 2018, the KU Leuven Centre for Translation Studies has been, so to speak, browsing its family albums. One of its particularly interesting chapters consists of the recorded lectures by the Chair Professors of our Research Summer School in Translation Studies. We admit that the technological quality of some of these videos is not as good as we would like it to be, but we believe this is generously compensated by the quality of the lectures in question. We are therefore happy to be able to share our collection of recorded CETRA lectures on this blog. We will do this gradually, to prevent indigestion, and in chronological order. An overview of the already published video lectures can be found on this blog page

Today, we would like to invite you to revisit the lectures “An integrated framework for translated events”, “Transitivity and Institutional Norms of Translating” and “Dialogue Interpreting and Relevance”, held by Ian Mason, CETRA Chair Professor of 2003, on 9, 11 and 12 September 2003.