was born in England but moved to Finland in 1968 and has been based there ever since, mainly at the University of Helsinki, where his main subjects have been English and translation theory. In 2010 he retired from his post as professor of multilingual communication, but continues to be active in Translation Studies, refereeing, writing, and giving occasional lectures. His main research interests have been in contrastive analysis; translation theory, translation norms, universals, and ethics; and research methodology. He was CETRA Professor in 1999, and has an honorary doctorate from the Copenhagen Business School. Main books: On Definiteness (1991, CUP); Memes of Translation (1997, Benjamins); Contrastive Functional Analysis (1998, Benjamins); with Emma Wagner: Can Theory Help Translators? A Dialogue between the Ivory Tower and the Wordface (2002, St. Jerome Publishing); and with Jenny Williams: The Map. A Beginners’ Guide to Doing Research in Translation Studies (2002, St. Jerome Publishing). Andrew retired from the CETRA research summer school in 2016.